The Evolution of the Printed Circuit Boards

pcbassembly The Evolution of the Printed Circuit BoardsThe evolution of the printed circuit board come a long way in the history of electronics. It has developed from the original electrical connection systems developed in 1850s. Early patents for printed circuit boards were issued as early as the 1900s. However, it is not until World War II that people started to use the PCB that we know today.

1920’s to 1940’s- The beginning of the early PCB

In 1925, Charles Ducas of the United States submitted a patent request for a process of creating electrical conduit directly on an insulated surface using an electrically conductive ink. And so the term “printed wiring” or “printed board” was born. In 1943, Austrian scientist, Dr. Paul Eisler, made the first operational printed circuit board that was used as a replacement for huge radio wirings.

Early printed circuit boards were manufactured using of materials like Bakelite, Masonlite, cardboard layers or wooden planks. The materials were drilled to add holes and flat brass wires were bolted onto the board. The component connections were usually made by pressing the end of the brass trace onto the hollow rivet and the component’s leads were only pressed into the open end of the rivets. Sometimes small nuts and bolts are used instead of rivets. The earliest application of the printed circuit boards were used in early tube style radios and gramophones.

1950’s to 1960’s- The evolution of PCB began

During the 1950’s and early 1960’s laminates using different types of resins were introduced. However, all printed circuit boards produced were still single sided. One side of the board contained the circuitry while the other side was the components. Government agencies responsible for new weapons and communications equipment were the biggest influence on the printed circuit board.

Sooner or later, the process replacing the use of brass wires with copper plated to the drilled holes were developed that allowed circuits for both sides to be electrically connected. A 1956 patent issued for a small group of scientists that represented U.S. Army involved the use of base material to which layers of copper foils had been firmly laminated. It used an acid resistant ink printed on the copper foil that was etched to remove the exposed copper. Other methods proposed to deposit ink patterns were stencils, screening, rubber stamping and hand printing.

Double- sided printed circuit boards came together with the introduction of the plating process that allows holes walls to be plated. The 60’s era marked the first use of multi- layer printed circuit boards in the United States. This was the result of the development of the transistor and the miniaturization of other components that created the need for the manufacturers of consumer products to use printed circuit boards.

1970’s to Present- Technological advancements that enhance the PCB

One of the problems of the PCB was the wide spacing of the traces which was considered as more of an aesthetic problem than functional one. During the 1970’s the spacing and the circuitry began to become smaller and the tin/lead coating being used to coat the traces on the board began combining traces together during the soldering process. It the late 1970’s, hot air soldering process was used. It permitted the tin/lead coat to be exposed during etching.

The development of the liquid photo- imaginable masks during the mid- 1990’s had dominated the industry using specialized equipment designed specifically for the application. The invention of the integrated circuit or IC allowed the PCB to reduce in size more. Flexible circuit boards also replaced the stiff boards and cable applications too.

The unending advancements on the electronics technology will keep the production of PCB a dynamic field for so many years. PCB production will continue to be productive as new technologies are discovered everyday to give the world a more sustainable PCB in the future.

High quality Pcb assembly fabrication and Printed Circuit Boards. From prototype to production of single, double, and multilayer PC Boards.

Friendly Fashion Tips for Golfers

A place which has strict regulations in the dress code of their customers is the golf course. The minimum dress code requirement varies from one golf course to another, but there are common factors available in all golf courses. In selecting what to wear, a golf player should keep in mind that the best way is to stay conservative but still classy. As it is, here are a few tips on what to wear when out in the range.

1.Be aware of the minimum dress code of the chosen golf course.

The best course of action to ensure that the chosen golf apparel is appropriate for the course is to inquire about the dress code of the certain golf course. This is one of the most apparent but clearly disregarded tips given to players. This is also the best tips for players going to unfamiliar or newly-opened golf courses. It should be common practice to drop by the golf course first and inquire about their allowed attire. People could also just ask other players who frequently play there for the minimum dress code. It is also not too much of hassle to just ring the golf course and ask about the attire basics. In fact, there are a lot of ways to ask for the dress code.

2.Match the course fees with the minimum dress code.

An easy way to have an estimate of the dress code requirement of a golf course is to check how much they charge the players for a game. The higher the price charged by courses, the higher is the sophistication and strictness in implementing dress codes.

3.Select safe with collar shirts.

Golf Friendly Fashion Tips for GolfersThis collared polo shirt is the classic golf apparel for all golf players. A player should never select short-sleeved, tight, or dirty polo shirt for men; golf players believe that golf apparel should be conservative and sophisticated. The design of the polo shirt could be brightly colored, patterned or pinstripes, as long as it would not clash with the chosen bottom. To be safe, he could choose to wear the polo shirts he would wear during casual business settings as those tops are appropriate for such an event. He should also not forget to tuck the polo shirt as to not look sloppy when playing.

4.Denim of any type should be avoided at all cost.

Fewer and fewer golf ranges permit jeans to be worn by the players when playing. Denim is actually not a safe golf apparel to choose as it does not fit the look of a golf player. It would be best to wear a pair of pants made of cotton or polyester.

5.A pair of shorts is also not as safe an option.

There are still a number of golf ranges that permit the golfer to wear shorts, though more and more are shifting to the “pants only” dress code requirement. However, for golf players who are more comfortable wearing a pair of shorts, they should ensure that the shorts are longer than the typical Bermuda shorts. The “No Denim” rule also applies when choosing a pair of shorts. Cargo pants are also not favored, as the baggy look of cargo makes a person appear disorganized and messy. The player could choose from pleated or flat front styles.

6.Designs and colors also matter.

There are no golf courses that require or ban a certain color or pattern for attire; though it goes without saying that crude and obscene designs are not permitted. A player should take the extra step and make certain that the colors and designs of the tops and bottoms would complement. To stay classic, a player could pair a brightly colored shirt with a neutral-based pair of pants. The basic rule of thumb in designs is to stick to only one attire for designs while the rest should be plain. The belt and socks should also match the color of the bottoms.